Category Archives: Surgpedia

Anaphylaxis Diagnostic Criteria

Anaphylaxis should be considered in the differential diagnosis when any one of the three main criteria list below occurs in a patient: 1. Acute onset of an illness (minutes to hours) with involvement of the skin, mucoasal tissue, or both (e.g., generalized hives, pruritus and or flushing, swollen lips/tongue/uvula and at least one of the Continue Reading

Marfan’s Disease

Pathophysiology of Marfan’s disease Marfan’s disease is 1) disease of connective tissue 2) marked by dilation of aorta and aortic dissection in a young person

Rheumatoid Arthritis

Pathophysiology of Rheumatoid Arthritis rheumatoid arthritis is: 1)  systemic autoimmune disease of unknown cause 2) hallmark is chronic, symmetric, destructive inflammatory synovitis in peripheral joints

Atrial Flutter

Pathophysiology of Atrial Flutter atrial flutter is: 1)  a rapid heart beat with a regular rhthm 2) causes include corrective surgery for congenital heart disease, mitral valve disease, and cardiomyopathy Type 1 atrial flutter (classic) 3) electrical pathway goes through the subeustachian isthmus with flutter traveling in a counterclockwise manner (rate usually 280-320 atrial beats Continue Reading

Clean Wound

A clean wound occur when the respiratory, alimentary, genital and urinary tracts are not entered. In addition, there is no inflammation in the wound area, no breaks in aseptic technique. These wounds can be closed primarily. Examples of procedures that have clean wounds are:

Atrial Fibrillation

Pathophysiology of Atrial Fibrillation 1) atrial fibrillation is a disorganized electrical activity in the atria with an increased number of atrial impulses reaching the AV node (350-600/min) 2) this causes a subsequent partial refractoriness at the AV node with a “concealed conduction” that can result in a relatively slow ventricular response to the atrial fibrillation Continue Reading

Osteogenesis Imperfecta

Pathophysiology of osteogenesis imperfecta 1) osteogenesis imperfecta is a congenital disorder of Type I collagen with expression chiefly as brittle bones 2) sometimes can affect joints, ligaments, sclerae, teeth, ears, and skin 3) four clinical types have been described


Pathophysiology of osteoarthritis 1) osteoarthritis is marked by progressive destruction of articular cartilage 2) most common in weight-bearing joints and fingers or joints subjected to trauma 3) classified as primary (or idiopathic) and secondary 4) development depends on four contributing factors – genetic predisposition, decreased resilence of articular cartilage, increased mechanical load on chrondrocytes (e.g., Continue Reading


Pathophysiology of Endometriosis endometriosis is: 1) presence of benign endometrial tissue outside of uterine cavity 2) most commonly found in posterior cul-de-sac (pouch of Douglas) 3) also found on ovaries, rectosigmoid, bladder, uterosacral ligaments and very occasionally at distant sites such as lungs, bones, umbilicus 4) pathogenesis is uncertain

USMLE Questions – Characteristic Disease Findings

USMLE questions can be notoriously “picky”. The United States Medical Licensing Examination is designed to emphasize knowledge of clinical scenarios and clinical pearls, even on Step I. Listed below are some commonly encountered disease findings and characteristics that are often included in USMLE questions .

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL)

Pathophysiology 1) neoplastic disorder of lymphopoietic stem cells marked by accumulation of lymphoblasts in bone marrow 2) 80% are B cell in origin, 10% are T cell in origin, and 10%a are null cell (can’t determine if B or T cell) 3) disease condition results from malignant cells eventually crowding out normal hematopoietic cells in Continue Reading