Peritonitis is defined as the presence of microorganisms in the normally sterile peritoneal sac. It is classified as primary, secondary, or tertiary.
In primary peritonitis, there is no identifiable source of infection. It is associated with peritoneal diaylysis, systemic lupus erythematosus, ascites, and cirrhosis.
It is often monomicrobial with the most common pathogen being Escherichia coli. Other common Gram-negative species identified include Klebsiella. Gram-positive species isolated include Streptococcus and Enterococcus.
These are considered serious infections and mortality can reach 50% in cases with cirrhosis.
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